Download A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu PDF

By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed awesome ethnic and cultural range one of the predicted thirty million humans residing inside its borders. It used to be might be the main cosmopolitan kingdom within the world--and almost certainly the main risky. a short historical past of the overdue Ottoman Empire now provides students and normal readers a concise heritage of the overdue empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked via amazing social swap. relocating previous commonplace remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes extensive old traits and strategies greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid strong competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and overseas powers. He seems heavily on the socioeconomic alterations this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu exhibits how this background is not just necessary to comprehending smooth Turkey, yet is imperative to the histories of Europe and the realm. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to existence in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial files and different records from the interval to explain it because it truly used to be, now not because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a quick historical past of the overdue Ottoman Empire is a must-read for someone looking to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the realm nonetheless grapples with this day.

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104. indd 21 8/23/2007 8:16:00 PM 22 Chapter One Despite the advantages of the malikâne, the overall benefit of the system was cancelled out, for the most part, by the decline of central power and the concomitant reduction in the state’s capacity to raise taxes. 45 Inflationary pressures naturally gave rise to social discontent. Moreover, the malikâne often had a negative impact on local economies, because the farming out of many local fiscal resources by the central treasury deprived many provincial administrations of traditional sources of income.

5% of the total. 4% of the total value of the estates. 61 See, for example, an imperial decree dated June 22, 1792 in Ahmet Refik [Altınay], Hicrî On Üçüncü Asırda Istanbul Hayatı, 1200–1255 (Istanbul: Istanbul Matbaacılık, 1932), p. 4. indd 27 8/23/2007 8:16:00 PM 28 Chapter One Middle-class and lower-middle-class residents of Istanbul tended to own simple clothing, extremely rudimentary furniture, and few personal items. Household contents were simple and easy to move. Sparse furnishings suited not only the traditional lifestyle of the people but also an architectural style that emphasized wooden structures vulnerable to fire.

That most of the objects in the possession of all but the rich were heavily used is attested by the fact that overwhelming numbers of the items in estate inventories were marked as worn out (köhne). Most physical possessions were of domestic origin. Exceptions tended to be luxury items, such as velvet from Iran and India, high-quality furs from Russia, and select British garments. Catalogs of household items demonstrate an impressive flow of trade within the empire, with brand names closely associated with regional expertise: knives, sweaters, and other clothing from Damascus, shawls from North Africa, pillows from Amasya, silk and cushions from Bursa, floor mats from Salonica, face towels from Mosul, and purses from Yambol.

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