By Pravin M. Shah (auth.), Navin C. Nanda MD, Reinhard Schlief (eds.)
` Nanda and Schlief have edited and produced an authoritative and up to date reference publication for either skilled and green echocardiologists. I strongly suggest this ebook to these attracted to this box. '
International magazine of Cardiology, forty five (1994)
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Additional info for Advances in Echo Imaging Using Contrast Enhancement
Acoustic) pressure = pressure in the bubble in the absence of sound wave pg (kp)-1 = adiabatic gas compressibility. 7 X 10- 3 cm, or 3 x 10- 5 cm, respectively, for fatty or protein skin surrounding the air bubble. Experimental data were quoted as evidence that the more rigid encapsulated microbubbles exhibited significantly higher resonance frequencies than would be expected for free gas bubbles. The modified bubble resonant frequency equation, in its simplified form, was listed as: fr = _1 27TR [3kPg PI (1 + ~)J R 112 (16) the bracket constituting a correction due to the presence of the thin skin.
Figure 11  shows computed Qs as a function of frequency for differing microbubble size. Note the sharp rise of the curves up to the resonance peaks, and the relatively constant level at higher frequencies, where the bubble acts like a normal reflector of actual bubble cross section. One of the significant theoretical contributions in the area of sound interactions with gas bubble-liquid mixtures, was that of Nishi , who reported computations in the diagnostic ultrasound range and extended modeling to include air bubbles in blood.
Meltzer's extensive studies considered the origin of echo-contrast . While not fully excluded, he concluded - and most agree - that catheter injections will generally not produce cavitation. The source of ultrasound contrast enhancement is primarily ascribed to accidentally or deliberately injected gaseous bubbles, and controlled injection of well characterized microbubbles is basic to effective contrast echocardiography. "Transient" vs "stable" cavitation As described by Apfel , transient cavitation involves rapid bubble motions, in which their characteristic dimension changes greatly during one acoustic period.