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By Vera P. Moutafchieva

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Additional resources for Agrarian Relations in the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th Centuries

Sample text

The gedik timars were not available to ordinary sipahis. , their obligations were very few. loo Finally, the most important division of the timars in the empire was into free (serbest) and not free gayr-z serbest). The division in question is an expression of the specific feudal heirarchy that existed within the timar system. 102 The timars of the sipahis with the rank of private, with the exception of the zaim, were considered to be tied. In practice, the differences between these two main categories lay in the distribution of the feudal rent.

Any Moslem, whether he was a raiyet who had enrolled in the armies of the beylerbeys and sancakbeys, or whether he had been in a border detachment and had distinguished himself in battle, received from his commanding officer a certificate that gave him the right to apply for a rimar. 123 Any further military distinction led to an increase in the size of the rimar (teraki) by 10 percent. 124 During the reign of Selim II, because of the limitation of income intended for military maintenance purposes, the sum of 500 ak(e was set as the maximum for such a supplement.

105 It is obvious that this could hardly have been the aim 105 of the central government, for which the complicated registration of the timars and the vast bureaucracy involved in this was the only way of extracting the largest possible land rent from the miriye lands, and, at the same time, securing the maintenance of the much larger feudal army in return for the income from that rent. The iemal office registered each separate estate-has, zeamet, mulk, vakif-in a given administrative-territorial unit, noting the name of the holder, his military obligations, and his annual income.

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