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By Freya Stark

This can be the tale of back-country Turkey, a space that even within the twentieth century is still stubbornly tied to antiquity. the writer traveled via it by means of truck and horseback, frequently on my own. She reached locations little visited and not written approximately. the rustic humans welcomed her with generosity unrelated to their meager resources.
She used to be touring in time in addition, and located value in recalling the lifetime of Alexander the good. Twenty-two centuries in the past he used to be the 1st to dream of a united global.

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It was the minority view that a Jew could fully convert to another religion. Even on the question of voluntary conversion, legal authorities considered the heretics still to be Jews—for example, allowing conversos back into the fold without converting. This meant that they had never legally ceased being Jews. Suffice it to say that the Dönme were not the converts of the usual type. The upheaval they caused among Jews was considered so damaging to Judaism and Jews that rabbis adopted harsh views of them and were unwilling to overlook their consuming unclean foods, eating on fast days, celebrating holidays not in the Jewish calendar, and rejecting the commandments of the Torah.

Groups such as the Dönme compile genealogies, not only to preserve a religion, but also as part of a social practice aiming to perpetuate a people. 11 Such naming practices are “akin to leapfrogging backward to eponymous ancestors tied to places. ”13 Like the conversos, who considered themselves “The Nation,” and the Jews, who were a people with a religion, not merely members of a religion, the Dönme kept genealogies, because Dönme identity was part religion, part peoplehood, part diasporic belonging.

Along with conducting circumcision, marriages, and funerals according to the rules of Islam, the leader would also read a prayer according to the Yakubi customs. Since they were so assimilated into Islam, Yakubi women “were fanatics in the matter of veiling” and would not be seen with any male other than their chil- Introduction  dren, father, and brother. Veiling was required even around a husband’s brothers, a brother’s children. According to Yalman, an outspoken critic of the persistence of Dönme tradition, the leader’s basic duty was to hinder innovation and see to it that there was no deviation from the norm.

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