Download ANNA A Language for Annotating Ada Programs by David C. Luckham, Friedrich W. von Henke, Bernd PDF

By David C. Luckham, Friedrich W. von Henke, Bernd Krieg-Brueckner, Olaf Owe

This reference guide of ANNA is one other quantity addressed to the ADA neighborhood. ANNA is a language extension of ADA to incorporate amenities for officially specifying the meant habit of ADA courses. it's designed to fulfill a perceived have to increase ADA with designated machine-processable annotations in order that good verified formal tools of specification and documentation may be utilized to ADA courses. the present ANNA layout contains annotations of all ADA constructs other than tasking. related extensions for formal specification might be made to different Algol-like languages resembling Pascal, PL/1, Concurrent Pascal, and Modula; primarily, those extensions will be subsets of ANNA. The layout of ANNA was once undertaken from the start with 4 crucial issues: 1. developing annotations may be effortless for the ADA programmer and may rely up to attainable on notation and ideas of ADA. 2. ANNA may still own language positive factors which are established within the specification and documentation of courses. three. ANNA should still supply a framework in which some of the confirmed theories of officially specifying courses could be utilized to ADA. four. Annotations will be both compatible for various attainable purposes in the course of the existence cycle of a software. Such functions comprise not just checking out, debugging and formal verification of a comprehensive software, but additionally specification of application elements in the course of the previous levels of necessities research and software design.

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If occurs is inconsistent; in will raise the exception 4. 7 QUALIFIED EXPRESSIONS If the type indicated by the type mark in a qualified expression is subject to a type constraint, then the value of the operand must satisfy that constraint. If such a constraint is not satisfied, the program in which the qualified expression occurs is inconsistent; in this case runtime consistency checking of the qualified expression will raise the exception ANNAERROR. 1 1 QUANTIFIED EXPRESSIONS Quantified boolean expressions in Anna generalize the classical first order logic meaning of quantifiers.

Therefore Anna explicitly associates a collection state with each access type and introduces notation for collection states. In Anna, an access type T has an attribute, T' COLLECTION, whose value at any point in a program is the current state of the collection that encapsulates the objects designated by values of T. , its set of possible values) have the type, T' COLLECTION' TYPE. New names are introduced to denote states of the collection resulting from sequences of operations on the access objects of type T.

A compound statement annotation is equivalent to the same list of basic annotations in the declarative part of a block statement whose body is the given statement. 56 ANNA REFERENCE MANUAL Transformation of compound statement annotations into the Anna Kernel uses this equivalence: a compound statement with an annotation that does not consist only of in and out annotations is transformed into a block having that statement as body and the basic annotation list from the compound statement annotation as the declarative part.

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