By I. M. Kutasov
The aim of utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is to offer in a transparent and concise shape tools of using the knowledge of temperature surveys in deep boreholes in addition to the result of box, laboratory and analytical investigations in geothermics to a large viewers. even though a few features of the topic of this ebook were mentioned in different past books and various papers, utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is the 1st e-book in this subject on hand to the petroleum engineering neighborhood. the target of the ebook is to give the country of information and prediction of downhole and formations temperatures in the course of good drilling, good of entirety, shut-in and construction. utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is meant for drilling engineers (impact of increased temperatures on good drilling and finishing touch know-how, Arctic drilling), construction engineers (temperature regime of construction, injection and geothermal partitions, Arctic production), reservoir engineers (temperature box of reservoirs, thermal homes of formations and formation fluids), good logging engineers (interpretation of electric resistance, dust density, and temperature logs), and geophysicists and geologists (interpretation of geophysical facts, calculation of the terrestrial warmth movement, reconstruction of prior climates).
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82) Straus and Schubert (1977) have shown that in a real case the value of Ra~ is considerably influenced by the variable physical properties and non-Boussinesq behavior of the fluid; in this case the temperature gradient must be specified. 17 shows how Rac - Ra~ varies with the temperature gradient and thickness of the formation in which the physical properties are temperature and pressure dependent. 44 CHAPTER 2 40 35 30 25 25 20 15 i00 _ 150 _ 200 10 I %00; oo; i 1 , i I ol h(km) bOO Fig. 17.
Permafrost was formed and exists in definite thermal conditions, characterized in the first place by a field of negative temperatures (in ~ and phase transitions of water into ice. The temperature field in permafrost regions is formed under the influence of the heat exchange on the surface, the composition and structure of the formations, the heat flow density, local sources of heat, and phase transitions of water. In the permafrost areas the rate of heat flow serves as the main criterion of the steadiness or nonsteadiness of the thermal regime.
19). 072 ~ over the Humble dome (Texas) with salt at 380 m. 100 ~ (2 to 3 times the regional average) were recorded with diapiric salt at 150 to 250 m below the seafloor (Gretener, 1981). Interesting results of a numerical modeling were presented by Gretener (1981). He calculated the anomalies of the geothermal gradient and temperature at 150 m below the surface (at different distances from center of the salt dome) for salt rising from 13 km to various depths. The strong dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature (depth) was taken into account at calculations.