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By Zeynep Yürekli

In line with a radical exam of constructions, inscriptions, archival files and hagiographies, this booklet uncovers the political importance of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore offers a clean and finished account of the formative means of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial rules within the overdue 15th century, was once counseled imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) gentle energy coverage, and saved lower than cost via imperial experts because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened in the course of the remainder of the 16th century. This booklet demonstrates that it was once a mixture of 2 collective actions that tested the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the overdue 15th century onwards. One used to be the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto particular social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another in the course of the lives of ancient figures who have been their identification markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman historical past in artistic methods. the opposite one used to be the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. when it comes to type, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output finds a classy technique of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional element within the ebook are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. even though tested as autonomous associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community lower than the Ottomans, turned its valuable centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, mostly lower than the patronage of raider commanders established within the Balkans. They therefore got here to occupy an middleman socio-political area among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.

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Extra info for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age

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Introduction: Legends and Shrines 9 (the Mamluks, the Dulkadirids, the Akkoyunlu and eventually the Safavids). At the time of the incorporation of the central Anatolian plateau into the empire, resentment of the eastward growth of Ottoman influence was particularly strong. This fed into a culture of internal opposition which continued to be externally nurtured from the east. Hence the effort to write alternative versions of Ottoman history centred on saints who had a large following among the rural population of the plateau that stretched between the two shrines, which was now known as the Ottoman ‘province (eyālet) of Karaman’.

42 May Farhat, Islamic Piety and Dynastic Legitimacy: The Case of the Shrine of ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Riḍā, PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2002; Kishwar Rizvi, The Safavid Dynastic Shrine: Architecture, Religion and Power in Early Modern Iran (London and New York, 2010); Kishwar Rizvi, ‘The Imperial Setting: Shah ʿAbbās at the Safavid shrine of Shaykh Ṣafī in Ardabil’, in Sheila R. ), Safavid Art and Architecture (London, 2002), pp. 9–15; Kishwar Rizvi, ‘ ‘Its Mortar Mixed with the Sweetness of Life’: Architecture and Ceremonial at the Shrine of Ṣafī al-dīn Isḥāq Ardabīlī During the Reign of Shāh Ṭahmāsb I’, The Muslim World, 90 (2000): pp.

Rogers, ‘The burial rites of the Turks and the Mongols’, Central Asiatic Journal, 14 (1970): pp. 195–227]; Vasilii Vladimirovich Bartol’d, ‘Pogrebenii Timura’, Zapiski Vostochnogo Otdeleniya Imperatorskogo Russkogo Arkheologicheskogo Obshchestva, 13 (1916): pp. M. V. Bartol’d’s Article Pogrebenii Timura (‘The Burial of Timur’)’, Iran, 12 (1974): pp. 65–87]. 45 The Safavid shah ʿAbbas I (r. 1587–1629), for example, walked from Isfahan to the shrine of Imam Riza in Mashhad on foot; see Charles Melville, ‘Shah ʿAbbas and the Pilgrimage to Mashhad’, Pembroke Papers, 4 (1996): pp.

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