By Philip Jowett, Stephen Walsh
It is a complete advisor to the armies that fought a devastating and decisive clash within the jap Mediterranean among the 2 international Wars of the 20 th century. From the preliminary Greek invasion, designed to "liberate" the 100,000 ethnic Greeks that lived in Western Turkey and had performed for hundreds of years, to Mustapha Kemal Ataturk's enormously effective formation of a countrywide govt and a standard military, this was once a battle that formed the geopolitical panorama of the Mediterranean to this present day. It gave delivery to the trendy Turkish country, displacing thousands and growing sour thoughts of atrocities dedicated by way of either side. Augmented with very infrequent pictures and lovely illustrations, this ground-breaking name explores the historical past, association, and visual appeal of the armies, either guerilla and traditional, that fought during this bloody struggle.
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Extra info for Armies of the Greek-Turkish War 1919-22
Multiple bandoliers are worn for the various Turkish Mausers, the weapon at centre left being an M1903 carbine; note that the same man seems to have a holstered, long-barrelled Luger artillery pistol. The Greek troops that landed at Smyrna in 1919 were almost totally equipped with M1908 leather equipment: a brown leather belt with three side-fastening, box-like 50-round ammunition pouches, worn flanking the buckle and centrally at the rear supported by Y-straps; a bayonet frog; a slung canvas haversack, a knapsack and, if they were lucky, a water bottle.
General officers had gold braid shoulder boards with 1 to 3 silver stars for major-generals, lieutenant-generals and full generals. A Greek regular posing for a studio portrait before going off to Asia Minor in 1919, wearing a uniform in various shades of woollen material. His sidecap and puttees are in the standard green-khaki shade, as is the shirt collar folded outside the collar of his tunic. Both his tunic and breeches are in a darker and presumably heavier wool material. The belt equipment is puzzling: his ammunition pouches are not Greek issue, nor are they recognizably those of any other European army of the period.
Officers usually used whatever equipment they had left over from their Ottoman Army service, and other examples were acquired from friendly Italian, French and British officers. Caliphate Army uniforms, 1920–22 42 The ineffectual Caliphate Army continued to use pre-1918 Ottoman Army uniforms and rank insignia. The majority of Caliphate soldiers continued to wear the kabalak (see Plate D1) in Constantinople until the Nationalist takeover in 1922. According to descriptions others wore the old-fashioned red or khaki fez, which some covered with scarves.